Sand vs EGFM

Independent trials have shown that:

  • The rate of head loss development using EGFM is 30% smaller than sand.
  • Filter runs with EGFM may be up to 50% longer than sand.
    Material and size specification

Size Information

*Products used for the treatment of water for human consumption – silica sand and silica gravel; where products are specified by size range and maximum oversize and undersize, products for use in multi-media filters shall have maximum oversize or undersize mass fraction of 5%.

Bulk Density

EGFM has a greater voidage than 16/30 filter sand due to it’s more angular particle shape. Greater voidage produces a more open bed structure which leads to lower headloss development.


  • The minimum fluidisation velocity for grade 1 EGFM in a 80 cm bed is 25m/h
  • The velocity for 20% bed expansion is 40 m/h.
  • In practice the backwash velocities required for Grade 1 EGFM are the same as sand
  • The use of air scour prior to backwash is recommended with an air flow rate of 50 to 80m3/hr/m2